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任丽娟 卜登攀 王建平 陈雅坤 单丽燕 王昆 王思伟 赵连生

引用本文: 任丽娟,卜登攀,王建平,陈雅坤,单丽燕,王昆,王思伟,赵连生. 全株玉米青贮中性洗涤纤维降解率的影响因素: 以宁夏地区正大12为例. 草业科学, 2020, 37(12): 2588-2597 doi: shu
Citation:  REN L J, BU D P, WANG J P, CHEN Y K, SHAN LY, WANG K, WANG S W, ZHAO L S. Analysis of factors influencing the degradation rate of neutral detergent fiber in whole-plant corn silage: Taking Zhengda 12 in Ningxia as an example. Pratacultural Science, 2020, 37(12): 2588-2597 doi: shu

全株玉米青贮中性洗涤纤维降解率的影响因素: 以宁夏地区正大12为例

    作者简介: 任丽娟(1995-),女,云南曲靖人,在读硕士生,主要从事反刍动物营养与饲料研究。E-mail: ;
    通讯作者: 赵连生,
  • 基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YFD0501600);中国农业科学院科技创新工程协同创新任务(CAAS-XTCX2016011-01);中国农业科学院科技创新工程(ASTIP-IAS07);奶牛产业技术体系北京市创新团队(BAIC06-2020);河北省重点研发计划-奶牛粗饲料营养精准评定及高效利用技术研发与集成应用(19226616D);河北省农林科学院创新工程-不同粗饲料来源奶牛日粮高效利用技术研究(4-04-03)

摘要: 以宁夏地区不同产地的23份正大12全株玉米(Zea mays)青贮饲料为研究对象,应用灰色关联度方法分析30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率(NDFD30)与营养成分的关联程度,并建立由营养成分预测30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率的回归模型,从而探讨影响全株玉米青贮饲料30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率的关键因素,为改善粗饲料的利用效率及提高奶牛的生产性能提供依据。结果表明,全株玉米青贮饲料的营养成分与30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率的关联程度由大到小表现为粗蛋白质 > 粗脂肪 > 粗灰分 > 碳水化合物 > 中性洗涤纤维 > 酸性洗涤纤维 > 木质素 > 干物质 > 淀粉。全株玉米青贮饲料的30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率与干物质、粗蛋白质、酸性洗涤纤维、木质素、粗灰分呈负相关关系,与中性洗涤纤维、碳水化合物、淀粉、粗脂肪呈正相关关系。建立的30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率与营养成分之间的回归模型R2为0.912,有效影响因素由大到小依次是木质素、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、中性洗涤纤维、粗灰分。综上所述,粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、粗灰分及中性洗涤纤维是影响30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率的关键因素。

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  • 重庆欢乐生肖

    表 1  重庆欢乐生肖 供试材料来源

    Table 1.  Origins of the experimental materials

    编号 Number产地 Origin采样地点 Sampling location
    1 惠龙区 Huilong District 惠农区兴业奶牛养殖专业合作社 Huinong District Xingye Dairy Farming Cooperative
    2 平罗县 Pingluo County 平罗县汇众鑫牧业有限公司 Pingluo County Huizhongxin Animal Husbandry Company
    3 平罗县 Pingluo County 平罗县合复奶牛养殖有限公司 Pinluo County Hefu Dairy Farming Company
    4 永宁县 Yongning County 永宁县荣俊养殖专业合作社 Yongning County Rongjun Breeding Professional Cooperative
    5 贺兰县 Helan County 宁夏贺兰县瑞飞养殖有限公司 Ningxia Helan County Ruifei Breeding Company
    6 贺兰县 Helan County 贺兰县金牧养殖公司 Helan County Jinmu Breeding Company
    7 青铜峡市 Qingtongxia City 宁夏恒天然牧业有限公司 Ningxia Heng Natural Animal Husbandry Company
    8 利通区 Litong District 吴忠市犇腾养殖专业合作社 Wuzhong Pentium Breeding Professional Cooperative
    9 沙坡头区 Shapotou District 中卫市沐沙奶牛养殖农民专业合作社
    Musha Dairy Farmers Professional Cooperative in Zhongwei
    10 原州区 Yuanzhou District 固原市原州区银林养殖农民专业合作社
    Yinyuan Breeding Farmers Professional Cooperative of Yuanzhou District, Guyuan City
    11 贺兰县 Helan County 宁夏农垦贺兰山牛羊产业(集团)有限公司 Ningxia Agricultural Reclamation
    Helan Mountain Cattle and Sheep Industry (Group) Company
    12 西吉县 Xiji County 宁夏向丰家庭农场 Ningxia Xiangfeng Family Farm
    13 同心县 Tongxin County 同心县干湾沟北湾养殖专业合作社
    Ganwangou Beiwan Breeding Professional Cooperative of Tongxin County
    14 西吉县 Xiji County 西吉县众牧养殖专业合作社
    Xiji County Public Animal Husbandry Professional Cooperative
    15 泾源县 Jingyuan County 宁夏泾源县六盘山牧业有限责任公司
    Ningxia Jingyuan County Liupanshan Animal Husbandry Company
    16 隆德县 Longde County 隆德县向兴牧业合作社 Longde County Xiangxing Animal Husbandry Cooperative
    17 金凤区 Jinfeng District 宁夏翔达牧业科技有限公司 Ningxia Xiangda Animal Husbandry Technology Company
    18 金凤区 Jinfeng District 宁夏中牧亿林畜产股份有限公司 Ningxia Zhongmu Yilin Livestock Company
    19 西夏区 Xixia District 宁夏荷利源奶牛原种繁育有限公司 Ningxia Heliyuan Dairy Cow Breeding Company
    20 西夏区 Xixia District 宁夏贺兰山奶牛原种繁育有限公司 Ningxia Helanshan Dairy Cow Breeding Company
    21 惠龙区 Huilong District 惠龙区塞上富源奶牛养殖专业合作社
    Huilong District Saishang Fuyuan Dairy Farming Cooperative
    22 灵武市 Lingwu City 宁夏灵武市团结牧场 Ningxia Lingwu City Unity Ranch
    23 同心县 Tongxin County 同心县莯振养殖专业合作社 Tongxin County Zhuzhen Breeding Professional Cooperative
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  全株玉米青贮饲料营养品质分析

    Table 2.  Analysis of the nutritional quality of whole-plant corn silage

    指标 Index最大值 Max.最小值 Min.平均值 Mean标准差 SD变异系数 CV/%
    干物质 Dry matter/% 41.710 27.750 34.067 5.032 14.772
    粗蛋白质 Crude protein/% 9.410 6.870 7.826 0.598 7.637
    酸性洗涤纤维 Acid detergent fiber/% 32.890 23.290 27.509 4.269 15.518
    中性洗涤纤维 Neutral detergent fiber/% 52.130 39.270 45.944 6.402 13.935
    木质素 Lignin/% 4.250 2.140 2.901 0.489 16.872
    水溶性碳水化合物 Water soluble carbohydrate/% 4.410 1.080 2.180 0.677 31.034
    淀粉 Starch/% 42.940 30.070 34.751 5.435 15.640
    粗脂肪 Crude fat/% 4.830 3.560 4.146 0.323 7.791
    粗灰分 Crude ash/% 6.970 4.400 5.475 0.782 14.287
    30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率30 h neutral detergent fiber degradation rate 64.990 54.110 59.856 2.792 4.664
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  重庆欢乐生肖 无量纲化处理结果

    Table 3.  Computed results for the silage characteristics using the dimensionless method

    编号 Number干物质 DM/%粗蛋白
    CP/%
    ADF/
    %
    NDF/
    %
    木质素 Lignin/%WSC/
    %
    淀粉
    Starch/%
    粗脂肪 EE/%粗灰分 Ash/%30 h NDF降解率 30 h NDF degradation rate
    1 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0 1.000 0
    2 0.834 8 1.131 3 1.208 8 1.203 7 1.210 3 1.113 7 0.791 9 1.007 9 1.249 0 0.962 8
    3 0.780 4 1.217 9 1.362 1 1.345 9 1.378 5 0.649 3 0.668 9 1.178 5 1.275 3 1.030 8
    4 0.719 5 1.148 0 1.246 4 1.254 0 1.158 9 0.938 4 0.734 0 1.139 1 1.070 9 1.110 1
    5 0.848 2 0.959 5 1.061 3 1.064 4 1.079 4 1.180 1 0.953 6 1.068 2 0.935 2 1.045 4
    6 0.952 8 1.015 4 1.080 4 1.098 7 1.163 6 1.047 4 0.931 9 1.039 4 0.910 9 1.031 9
    7 0.804 1 1.184 4 1.376 5 1.420 2 1.434 6 1.488 2 0.675 9 1.181 1 0.943 3 1.118 0
    8 0.865 7 1.100 6 1.255 1 1.259 3 1.289 7 1.180 1 0.766 4 1.233 6 0.951 4 1.081 5
    9 0.779 7 1.159 2 1.254 5 1.244 1 1.243 0 1.066 4 0.778 6 1.267 7 0.987 9 1.089 5
    10 0.743 7 1.041 9 1.340 7 1.330 7 1.336 4 1.028 4 0.758 4 0.986 9 1.024 3 1.035 2
    11 0.669 6 1.076 8 1.435 5 1.442 9 1.425 2 2.090 0 0.522 2 1.039 4 1.159 9 1.107 7
    12 0.684 5 1.115 9 1.553 5 1.515 4 1.509 3 0.976 3 0.540 1 1.131 2 1.129 6 1.139 0
    13 0.736 8 1.072 6 1.348 2 1.292 9 1.285 0 1.000 0 0.774 3 1.049 9 1.273 3 1.062 3
    14 0.570 1 1.314 2 1.858 9 1.798 4 1.986 0 0.857 8 0.399 9 1.015 7 1.293 5 0.992 0
    15 0.523 4 1.180 2 1.809 7 1.760 2 1.588 8 0.511 8 0.345 9 1.084 0 1.323 9 1.156 4
    16 0.521 5 1.162 0 1.902 3 1.844 0 1.845 8 0.957 3 0.328 0 0.992 1 1.410 9 1.124 2
    17 0.827 1 1.039 1 1.333 1 1.292 2 1.355 1 1.056 9 0.779 5 1.099 7 1.038 5 1.061 9
    18 0.691 4 1.058 7 1.356 3 1.367 9 1.341 1 0.744 1 0.683 9 1.139 1 1.038 5 1.119 6
    19 0.827 9 1.029 3 1.237 7 1.208 0 1.247 7 1.094 8 0.848 3 1.089 2 1.072 9 1.032 4
    20 0.785 4 1.041 9 1.301 3 1.258 2 1.345 8 0.910 0 0.787 5 1.055 1 1.133 6 1.045 2
    21 0.857 3 1.033 5 1.152 1 1.150 0 1.210 3 0.891 0 0.894 4 1.105 0 0.996 0 1.027 9
    22 0.853 5 1.039 1 1.142 9 1.157 1 1.186 9 1.374 4 0.819 5 1.189 0 0.890 7 1.057 5
    23 0.805 1 1.018 2 1.655 9 1.562 4 1.556 1 0.611 4 0.613 6 0.934 4 1.380 6 1.065 1
     “1-23” 编号与表1相同;ADF,酸性洗涤纤维;NDF,中性洗涤纤维;WSC,水溶性碳水化合物;下表同。
     Numbers “1-23” are the same as in Table 1; DM, dry matter; CP, crude protein; ADF, acid detergent fiber; NDF, neutral detergent fiber; WSC, water soluble carbohydrate; EE, crude fat; Ash, crude ash; this is applicable for the following tables as well.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  参考数列与比较数列的关联系数

    Table 4.  Correlation coefficient with the reference series

    编号
    Number
    干物质
    DM/%
    粗蛋白
    CP/%
    ADF/
    %
    NDF/
    %
    木质素
    Lignin/%
    WSC/
    %
    淀粉
    Starch/%
    粗脂肪
    EE/%
    粗灰分
    Ash/%
    11.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 01.000 0
    20.795 20.746 80.668 90.673 50.667 60.767 10.744 10.916 90.634 6
    30.665 00.726 50.600 00.611 90.588 40.565 70.578 70.770 90.670 2
    40.559 90.929 10.784 80.775 50.910 70.743 20.569 20.944 90.926 7
    50.716 00.852 70.968 90.963 20.935 90.786 70.844 20.956 00.818 6
    60.862 70.967 90.911 00.881 50.790 50.969 70.832 50.985 10.804 3
    70.612 90.882 20.657 80.621 80.610 90.573 10.529 20.887 30.740 0
    80.697 30.963 10.741 20.736 50.704 70.834 50.612 00.765 70.792 6
    90.616 00.877 00.750 80.762 80.764 00.955 50.615 20.736 10.830 2
    100.630 30.986 80.619 40.627 10.622 60.986 50.642 20.911 30.978 5
    110.531 50.941 60.602 50.597 20.610 10.335 90.459 10.879 20.904 8
    120.522 30.955 70.545 20.569 00.573 00.753 40.453 50.984 70.981 4
    130.604 20.979 60.634 80.683 10.690 50.888 60.633 10.975 60.702 0
    140.540 90.606 60.364 40.381 30.333 30.787 40.456 30.954 40.622 4
    150.439 80.954 40.432 10.451 50.534 80.435 40.380 10.872 80.747 9
    160.451 90.929 30.389 80.408 40.407 80.748 70.384 30.790 00.634 1
    170.679 20.956 10.646 90.683 40.628 90.989 90.637 60.929 30.954 9
    180.537 20.890 80.677 40.666 80.691 70.569 60.532 90.962 20.859 7
    190.708 50.993 90.707 60.738 90.697 80.888 40.729 70.897 30.924 7
    200.656 70.993 40.659 90.700 00.623 10.786 10.658 60.980 40.849 0
    210.744 50.988 90.800 10.802 80.731 60.784 00.788 30.865 80.939 5
    220.709 00.964 40.853 40.833 10.793 40.610 60.676 30.790 80.748 7
    230.656 50.913 70.456 90.499 80.503 10.522 70.524 00.791 70.611 7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5  30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率与各营养指标的等权关联度

    Table 5.  Equal-weight correlation between the 30-h neutral detergent fiber degradation rate and each nutrition index

    指标
    Index
    等权关联度 Equal
    weight correlation
    排序
    Sort
    粗蛋白 Crude protein/% 0.913 1 1
    粗脂肪 Crude fat/% 0.893 4 2
    粗灰分 Crude ash/% 0.812 0 3
    水溶性碳水化合物
    Water soluble carbohydrate/%
    0.751 4 4
    中性洗涤纤维
    Neutral detergent fiber/%
    0.681 3 5
    酸性洗涤纤维
    Acid detergent fiber/%
    0.672 8 6
    木质素 Lignin/% 0.670 2 7
    干物质 Dry matter/% 0.649 5 8
    淀粉 Starch/% 0.620 9 9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6  全株玉米青贮30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率与营养成分的相关系数

    Table 6.  Correlation between the 30-h neutral detergent fiber degradation rate and nutritional components of the whole-plant silage

    指标ParameterDMCPADFNDFLigninWSCStarchEEAsh30 h NDFD
    DM1.000
    CP−0.627**1.000
    ADF−0.878**0.624**1.000
    NDF−0.892**0.658**0.994**1.000
    Lignin−0.807**0.666**0.958**0.958**1.000
    WSC0.178−0.165−0.294−0.244−0.2081.000
    Starch0.921**−0.689**−0.959**−0.975**−0.906**0.1441.000
    EE0.1180.232−0.277−0.231−0.2560.1330.1411.000
    Ash−0.661**0.464*0.782**0.740**0.691**−0.408−0.719**−0.504*1.000
    30 h NDFD−0.539**0.1600.425*0.463*0.2780.045−0.533**0.3480.0791.000
     DM,干物质;CP,粗蛋白;ADF,酸性洗涤纤维;NDF,中性洗涤纤维;Lignin,木质素;WSC,水溶性碳水化合物;Starch,淀粉;EE,粗脂肪;Ash,粗灰分;30 h NDFD,30 h 中性洗涤纤维降解率;*和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P <0.001 水平显著相关。
     DM, dry matter; CP, Crude protein; ADF, Acid detergent fiber; NDF, Neutral detergent fiber; WSC, Water soluble carbohydrate; EE, Crude fat; Ash, Crude ash; 30 h NDFD, 30-h neutral detergent fiber degradation rate; * and ** indicate significant correlation at the 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 7  重庆欢乐生肖 回归系数标准化检验

    Table 7.  Regression coefficient normalization test

    模型 Model非标准化系数 Non-standardized coefficient标准化系数
    Standard coefficient
    tSig.
    B标准误差 Standard error
    常量 Constant 44.750 25.185 1.777 0.099
    干物质 Dry matter/% −0.066 0.134 −0.119 −0.492 0.631
    粗蛋白质 Crude protein/% −2.704 0.970 −0.579 −2.788 0.015
    酸性洗涤纤维 Acid detergent fiber/% −0.337 1.158 −0.515 −0.291 0.776
    中性洗涤纤维 Neutral detergent fiber/% 1.364 0.842 3.128 1.620 0.129
    木质素 Lignin/% −8.823 2.693 −1.547 −3.276 0.006
    水溶性碳水化合物
    Water soluble carbohydrate/%
    0.438 0.582 0.106 0.752 0.465
    淀粉 Starch/% 0.044 0.256 0.132 0.171 0.867
    粗脂肪 Crude fat/% 4.972 1.459 0.575 3.408 0.005
    粗灰分 Crude ash/% −0.521 1.037 −0.146 −0.502 0.624
     a. 因变量: 30 h中性洗涤纤维降解率。
     a. Dependent variable: 30-h neutral detergent fiber degradation rate.
    下载: 导出CSV
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                          • 通讯作者:  赵连生,
                          • 收稿日期:  2019-06-15
                          • 网络出版日期:  2019-11-10
                          通讯作者: 陈斌,
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