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王得伟 王伟 廖结安 弋晓康 李平 何义川 张凤奎 吴惠昌

引用本文: 王得伟,王伟,廖结安,弋晓康,李平,何义川,张凤奎,吴惠昌. 北方绿肥翻压工艺流程及相关机械现状与对策. 草业科学, 2020, 37(10): 2152-2164 doi: shu
Citation:  WANG D W, WANG W, LIAO J A, YI X K, LI P, HE Y C, ZHANG F K, WU H C. Incorporation process of green manure in North China and current countermeasures of related machinery. Pratacultural Science, 2020, 37(10): 2152-2164 doi: shu

北方绿肥翻压工艺流程及相关机械现状与对策

    通讯作者: 王得伟,
  • 基金项目: 国家绿肥产业技术体系项目(CARS-22);兵团科技攻关项目(2018AB037);南疆重点产业创新发展支撑计划项目(2020DB003-3);塔里木大学校长基金青年创新资金项目(TDZKQN201807;TDZKSS201912);塔里木大学现代农业工程重点实验室项目(TDNG20170201)

摘要: 随着绿肥种植面积的不断增加,绿肥机械化也发展迅速。然而,现阶段绿肥种植使用的农机具难以满足绿肥高速发展的需求。由于前期我国绿肥种植和相关研究的停滞,导致现阶段我国绿肥翻压机械种类和功能的缺失,翻压机械划分方法及相关概念术语欠规范,不同地区对绿肥翻压机械化相关概念模糊、易混淆。本研究以绿肥农业机械化生产的角度总结了北方旱地及果园绿肥在粮肥轮作、粮肥复种、粮肥间套作、果园绿肥间套作等模式下翻压工艺流程和相关机械,针对机具命名混淆、一机多名等问题,根据不同翻压机械的翻压工艺和作业特点对绿肥翻压机械的种类、类型等进行了系统命名和划分,并根据现阶段翻压机械装备的使用现状提出了相应的研发对策和建议。本研究对我国各绿肥种植区(尤其基层生产中)科学、准确理解绿肥机械化翻压工艺流程、合理选用相关机械和翻压工艺、进一步研发绿肥翻压专用机具有重要意义。

English

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  • 重庆欢乐生肖

    图 1  绿肥粉碎机械

    Figure 1.  重庆欢乐生肖 Green manure crushing machines

    图 2  绿肥翻埋机械

    Figure 2.  Green manure burying machines

    图 3  绿肥粉碎翻埋机械

    Figure 3.  重庆欢乐生肖 Green manure combined crushing and burying machinery

    图 4  4JY−100型侧输式绿肥粉碎机

    Figure 4.  4JY−100 side output green manure crusher

    图 5  9GB−1.6型避障绿肥粉碎机

    Figure 5.  9GB−1.6 green manure obstacle avoiding crusher

    图 6  重庆欢乐生肖 LFQ−200型辊筒式绿肥压切机

    Figure 6.  LFQ−200 roller green manure press cutting machine

    图 7  重庆欢乐生肖 GFY−200型绿肥粉碎翻压复式作业机

    Figure 7.  GFY−200 for combined crushing and incorporation of green manure

    图 8  重庆欢乐生肖 绿肥翻压机械作业效果

    Figure 8.  Operation effect of green manure incorporation machifery

    图 9  重庆欢乐生肖 John Deere 1590型免耕播种机

    Figure 9.  重庆欢乐生肖 John Deere 1590 No-Till planter

    图 10  重庆欢乐生肖 Flexi-coil 5000型免耕播种机

    Figure 10.  重庆欢乐生肖 Flexi-coil 5000 No-Till planter

    图 11  绿肥翻压机械分类框架图

    Figure 11.  Classification frame of green manure incorporation machinery

    表 1  重庆欢乐生肖 典型翻压机械翻压原理和优缺点对比

    Table 1.  Comparison of the operational advantages and disadvantages of typical incorporation machinery

    机械名称
    Machine name
    翻压原理
    Overturning principle
    优点
    Advantage
    缺点
    Disadvantages
    铧式犁
    Share plough
    通过犁体翻转土垡,将绿肥和土壤整体翻扣
    The plough turns over the soil block to turn over the green manure and the soil as a whole
    翻压深度大、掩埋效果好、作业工序简单、效率高
    Large depth, good burying effect, simple working procedure and high efficiency
    翻压后地表不平、工作阻力大、无粉碎能力、工作部件易堵塞
    After operation, the surface is uneven, the working resistance is large, there is no crushing capacity, and the working parts easily become blocked
    圆盘犁
    Disk plough
    通过圆犁刀将绿肥茎秆与土壤一起切断后掩埋于土壤中
    The green manure stalks are cut off together with the soil by the plough and then buried in the soil
    工作部件防缠绕和堵塞,有粉碎和翻埋功能
    The disc plow can prevent winding and blocking, and has the function of crushing and burying
    掩埋深度浅、粉碎和掩埋性能不强、翻压后地表不平
    Shallow burial depth, poor crushing and burying performance, uneven surface after rolling
    旋耕机
    Rotary cultivator
    通过旋耕刀将绿肥茎秆和土壤一起切碎、搅拌混合后抛撒于地表
    The green manure stalks and soil are chopped, stirred and mixed together by rotary blades and then scattered on the ground
    作业后地表平整,绿肥和土壤混合均匀
    After operation, the ground surface should be leveled and the green fertilizer and soil mixed evenly
    旋耕刀易缠草堵塞、消耗功率大、翻埋效果差
    The rotary blade easily entangles grass and blocks up, high power consumption and poor burying effect
    秸秆粉碎机
    Straw crusher
    通过其高速旋转的粉碎刀将绿肥粉碎后抛撒在地表
    The green manure is crushed by a high-speed rotating blade and then scattered on the ground
    绿肥粉碎效果好、工作部件不易被缠绕堵塞
    Green fertilizer is well crushed and the working parts are not easily entangled and blocked
    无掩埋功能
    No burial function
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        • 通讯作者:  王得伟,
        • 收稿日期:  2019-02-05
        • 网络出版日期:  2019-09-21
        • 刊出日期:  2019-10-15
        通讯作者: 陈斌,
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