重庆欢乐生肖

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张海娟 何雅丽 李秀璋 李春杰

引用本文: 张海娟,何雅丽,李秀璋,李春杰. 麦角菌的研究进展. 草业科学, 2019, 36(12): 3076-3084. doi: shu
Citation:  ZHANG H J, HE Y L, LI X Z, LI C J. Research progress on fungus. Pratacultural Science, 2019, 36(12): 3076-3084. doi: shu

麦角菌的研究进展

    作者简介: 张海娟(1994-),女,甘肃省永靖人,在读硕士生,研究方向为禾草内生真菌。E-mail: .cn;
    通讯作者: 李春杰, .cn
  • 基金项目:重庆欢乐生肖 国家973项目(2017CB138702);教育部创新团队发展计划(IRT_17R50);国家自然科学基金(30070546);中央高校基本科研业务费项目(LZUJBKY-2018-kb10、2019-kb10);111引智基地(B12002)

摘要: 麦角菌(Claviceps)属于麦角菌科真菌,其产生的生物碱毒素易引起人和动物中毒,同时也具有多种生物活性,在医学上得到了广泛应用。本文就国内外近年来对麦角菌的相关研究进展进行了扼要综述,以期为麦角菌的防控和利用提供借鉴。麦角菌起源于上白垩纪时期的南美洲,主要通过昆虫向新的区域或新寄主传播,现在全球的分布范围主要有6个区域: 非洲、南美洲、欧亚大陆、北美、澳大利亚和印度;麦角菌可以侵染7个科或亚科的70多属的400余种植物。麦角菌主要寄生在粮食作物及禾草的穗部,家畜采食受侵染的谷物易引起中毒,历史上已有无数次麦角中毒事件发生。麦角病的主要防治方法有选用花期较短的抗病品种,在寄主花期喷施杀菌剂以及及时收获菌核,减少初侵染来源。麦角菌产生的生物碱在医学上得到了广泛的应用,早在1474年的德国处方就已经记载药用,在医学上主要用于治疗偏头疼、产后出血、乳腺病、帕金森病、脑血管系统和癌症等疾病。目前,国内外研究的重点主要包括麦角菌的遗传进化和其产生的生物碱在医学上的应用。未来,培育抗麦角病禾谷类作物和牧草新品种,筛选高产碱量菌株,揭示麦角菌、内生真菌与寄主植物的互作机制可能会成为相关研究的热点之一。

English

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  • 重庆欢乐生肖

    表 1  重庆欢乐生肖 常见的麦角生物碱

    Table 1.  重庆欢乐生肖 Common ergot alkaloids

    生物碱种类
    Alkaloid species
    产碱菌种
    Alkaloid-producing strains
    参考文献
    Reference
    棒麦角生物碱包括: 田麦角碱、野麦角碱、裸麦角碱、瑟妥棒麦角碱、
    6,7-断-田麦角碱、肋麦角碱、异瑟妥棒麦角碱、狼尾草麦角碱。
    Clavine alkaloids including: Agroclavine, elymoclavine, secaclavine, setoclavine, 6,7-secoagroclavine, costaclavine, isosetoclavine, penniclavine.
    雀稗麦角菌(Claviceps paspali),
    C. fusiformis
    [54]
    简单麦角酸衍生物包括: 麦角新碱、麦角酸。
    Lysergic acid derivatives including: ergometrine, lysergic acid.
    雀稗麦角菌
    (Claviceps paspali)
    [58]
    肽型生物碱包括: 麦角胺、麦角克碱、麦角考宁、麦角斯亭、麦角坡亭碱、
    麦角宁碱、麦角布亭碱、α - 麦角隐亭、麦角生碱。
    Ergopeptine alkaloids including: ergotamine, ergocristine, ergocornine, ergostine, ergoptine, ergonine, ergobutine, α-ergocryptine, ergosine.
    黑麦麦角菌
    (Claviceps)
    [59]
    酰胺类麦角生物碱包括: 麦角它曼。
    Ergopeptam alkaloids including: ergotaman.
    [55]
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                          • 通讯作者:  李春杰, .cn
                          • 收稿日期:  2018-06-24
                          • 网络出版日期:  2018-11-05
                          • 刊出日期:  2018-12-01
                          通讯作者: 陈斌,
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