重庆欢乐生肖

欢迎访问 草业科学,今天是

guojiazhongdianshengtaigongnengqutuimuhaicaogongchengshishixiaoguopingjia: yiningxiayanchixianweili

周升强 孙鹏飞 赵凯 王峰 左向东

引用本文: 周升强,孙鹏飞,赵凯,王峰,左向东. 国家重点生态功能区退牧还草工程实施效果评价: 以宁夏盐池县为例. 草业科学, 2020, 37(1): 201-212. doi: shu
Citation:  ZHOU S Q, SUN P F, ZHAO K, WANG F, ZUO X D. Implementation effects of the grazing withdrawal project in national key ecological function zones: A case study of Yanchi County in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Pratacultural Science, 2020, 37(1): 201-212. doi: shu

国家重点生态功能区退牧还草工程实施效果评价: 以宁夏盐池县为例

    作者简介: 周升强(1990-),男,山东莒县人,在读博士生,主要从事农业经济理论与政策研究。E-mail: .cn;
    通讯作者: 赵凯, .cn
摘要: 本研究以国家重点生态功能区宁夏盐池县为研究区域,基于4乡镇16村221户养殖户的调研数据,从工程的自身特性、工程的生态效益、社会效益、经济效益及工程的可持续性5个方面共选取18个指标,运用层次分析、R型聚类分析及变异系数法,评价了退牧还草工程的实施效果。结果表明: 1)工程实施效果的综合评价得分为0.627,表明退牧还草工程实施的效果较好;2)工程实施效果的分项评价结果呈现出生态效益 > 经济效益 > 社会效益 > 可持续性 > 自身特性的特征,表明退牧还草工程的实施取得了良好的生态、经济及社会效益,但工程的可持续性仍处于较低水平,养殖户对工程的自身特性评价较低。

English

    1. [1]

      NI J.  Carbon storage in grasslands of China[J]. Journal of Arid Environments, 2002, 50(2): 205-218. doi:

    2. [2]

      FAN J, ZHONG H, HARRIS W, YU G R, WANG S Q, HU Z M, YUE Y Z.  Carbon storage in the grasslands of China based on field measurements of above-and below-ground biomass[J]. Climatic Change, 2008, 86(3): 375-396.

    3. [3]

      王海春, 高博, 祁晓慧, 乔光华.  草原生态保护补助奖励机制对牧户减畜行为影响的实证分析: 基于内蒙古260户牧户的调查[J]. 农业经济问题, 2017, 38(12): 73-80, 112.
      WANG H C, GAO B, QI X H, QIAO G H.  Empirical analysis on the impact of the grassland ecological protection subsidies and incentives policies on herdsmen’s reduced-livestock behavior: Based on the 260 herdsmen households in Inner Mongolia[J]. Issues in Agricultural Economy, 2017, 38(12): 73-80, 112.

    4. [4]

      沈海花, 朱言坤, 赵霞, 耿晓庆, 高树琴, 方精云.  中国草地资源的现状分析[J]. 科学通报, 2016, 61(2): 139-154.
      SHEN H H, ZHU Y K, ZHAO X, GENG X Q, GAO S Q, FANG J Y.  Analysis of current grassland resources in China[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 2016, 61(2): 139-154.

    5. [5]

      张海燕, 樊江文, 邵全琴, 张雅娴.  2000 – 2010年中国退牧还草工程区生态系统宏观结构和质量及其动态变化[J]. 草业学报, 2016, 25(4): 1-15. doi:
      ZHANG H Y, FAN J W, SHAO Q Q, ZHANG Y X.  Ecosystem dynamics in the ‘returning rangeland to grassland’ programs, China[J]. Acta Prataculturae Sinica, 2016, 25(4): 1-15. doi:

    6. [6]

      刘宁, 周立华, 陈勇, 黄珊.  退牧还草政策下农村住户的违约行为分析[J]. 中国沙漠, 2013, 33(4): 1217-1224. doi:
      LIU N, ZHOU L H, CHEN Y, HUANG S.  Default behaviors of rural households under Chinese returning grazing land to grassland program[J]. Journal of Desert Research, 2013, 33(4): 1217-1224. doi:

    7. [7]

      张海燕, 樊江文, 邵全琴.  2000 – 2010年中国退牧还草工程区土地利用/覆被变化[J]. 地理科学进展, 2015, 34(7): 840-853.
      ZHANG H Y, FAN J W, SHAO Q Q.  Land use/land cover change in the grassland restoration program areas in China, 2000–2010[J]. Progress in Geography, 2015, 34(7): 840-853.

    8. [8]

      SHAO H Y, SUN X F, WANG H X.  A method to the impact assessment of the returning grazing land to grassland project on regional eco-environmental vulnerability[J]. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 2016, 56(): 155-167. doi:

    9. [9]

      唐毅, 刘明宇.  违规放牧行为的博弈分析及对策研究[J]. 草地学报, 2018, 26(5): 1146-1149. doi:
      TANG Y, LIU M Y.  The game analysis of illegal grazing and its corresponding countermeasures[J]. Acta Agrestia Sinica, 2018, 26(5): 1146-1149. doi:

    10. [10]

      安祎玮, 周立华, 陈勇.  基于倾向得分匹配法分析生态政策对农户收入的影响: 宁夏盐池县“退牧还草”案例研究[J]. 中国沙漠, 2016, 36(3): 823-829. doi:
      AN W W, ZHOU L H, CHEN Y.  Effects of ecological policy on farmer’s income based on the propensity score matching method: A case study of returning grazing land to grassland in Yanchi, Ningxia[J]. Journal of Desert Research, 2016, 36(3): 823-829. doi:

    11. [11]

      REN Y, LYU Y, FU B.  Quantifying the impacts of grassland restoration on biodiversity and ecosystem services in China[J]. Ecological Engineering, 2016, 95(): 542-550. doi:

    12. [12]

      田晓艳.  退牧还草政策对我国牧民生活的影响[J]. 中国草地学报, 2011, 33(4): 1-4.
      TIAN X Y.  The influence of policies of returning grazing land to forage land on the nomads' living[J]. Chinese Journal of Grassland, 2011, 33(4): 1-4.

    13. [13]

      赵春花, 曹致中, 荣之君.  退牧还草工程对内蒙古阿拉善左旗经济社会效益的影响[J]. 草地学报, 2009, 17(1): 17-21. doi:
      ZHAO C H, CAO Z Z, RONG Z J.  Effect of grazing withdrawal project on the economic-social benefits of Alashan Left Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region[J]. Acta Agrestia Sinica, 2009, 17(1): 17-21. doi:

    14. [14]

      李文卿, 胡自治, 龙瑞军, 高新才, 李发弟.  甘肃省退牧还草工程实施绩效、存在问题和对策[J]. 草业科学, 2007, 24(1): 1-6. doi:
      LI W Q, HU Z Z, LONG R J, GAO X C, LI F D.  The application effect of the project of restoring grassland from over-grazing in Gansu and the ways for its sustainable development[J]. Pratacultural Science, 2007, 24(1): 1-6. doi:

    15. [15]

      刘宇.  内蒙古地区退牧还草工程的效益评价及问题探析[J]. 内蒙古农业科技, 2009, (5): 6-7, 27.
      LIU Y.  Benefits evaluation of return pasture to grasslands project in Inner Mongolia and the existed problems[J]. Inner Mongolia Agricultural Science and Technology, 2009, (5): 6-7, 27.

    16. [16]

      张凯, 郭铌, 王润元, 王小平, 王静.  甘肃省天然草地退牧还草工程效益遥感监测研究: 以安西县荒漠草地为例[J]. 草业科学, 2008, 25(7): 29-35.
      ZHANG K, GUO N, WANG R Y, WANG X P, WANG J.  Benefit monitor of retrieving grassland from grazing by remote sensing in natural grassland of Gansu province: Taking the desert grassland of Anxi County as an example[J]. Pratacultural Science, 2008, 25(7): 29-35.

    17. [17]

      陈勇, 周立华, 张秀娟, 刘宁, 郁玮.  禁牧政策的生态经济效益: 以盐池县为例[J]. 草业科学, 2013, 30(2): 291-297.
      CHEN Y, ZHOU L H, ZHANG X J, LIU N, YU W.  An eco-economy benefit evaluation of prohibiting grazing policy[J]. Pratacultural Science, 2013, 30(2): 291-297.

    18. [18]

      刘振恒, 武高林, 杨林平, 班马才让.  黄河上游首曲湿地保护区退牧还草效益分析[J]. 草原与草坪, 2009, (3): 69-72. doi:
      LIU Z H, WU G L, YANG L P, Banmacairang.  Benefit analysis on the returning grazing land to protected grassland in wetland protection area of Maqu in the upper reaches of Yellow River[J]. Grassland and Turf, 2009, (3): 69-72. doi:

    19. [19]

      高翠玲.  内蒙古杭锦旗退牧还草工程问题研究[J]. 内蒙古农业大学学报(社会科学版), 2018, 20(1): 49-53.
      GAO C L.  Research on the project of returning grazing land to grassland in Hangjin Banner, Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University (Social Science Edrion), 2018, 20(1): 49-53.

    20. [20]

      EASTERLIN R A.  Life cycle welfare: evidence and conjecture[J]. Journal of Socio-Economics, 2001, 30(1): 31-61. doi:

    21. [21]

      路慧玲, 周立华, 陈勇, 黄珊, 马兵, 魏轩.  基于农户视角的盐池县退牧还草政策可持续性分析[J]. 中国沙漠, 2015, 35(4): 1065-1071. doi:
      LU H L, ZHOU L H, CHEN Y, HUANG S, MA B, WEI X.  Sustainability of grazing forbidden policy in Yanchi, Ningxia, China: A perspective of peasant households[J]. Journal of Desert Research, 2015, 35(4): 1065-1071. doi:

    22. [22]

      王艳华, 乔颖丽.  退牧还草工程实施中的问题与对策[J]. 农业经济问题, 2011, (2): 99-103.
      WANG Y H, QIAO Y L.  Problems in implementing retire livestock, restore grassland projects and counter measures[J]. Issues in Agricultural Economy重庆欢乐生肖, 2011, (2): 99-103.

    23. [23]

      重庆欢乐生肖 li w j, li y b. rangeland degradation control in china: a policy review. the end of desertification? 2016(springer):491-511.

    24. [24]

      XUE R, ZHEN S X.  Impacts of grazing intensity and management regimes on aboveground primary productivity and compensatory growth of grassland ecosystems in Inner Mongolia[J]. Biodiversity Science, 2010, 18(): 300-311. doi:

    25. [25]

      CHEN H B, SHAO L Q, ZHAO M J, ZHANG X.  Grassland conservation programs, vegetation rehabilitation and spatial dependency in Inner Mongolia, China[J]. Land Use Policy, 2017, 64(): 429-439. doi:

    26. [26]

      常海军, 陈昕.  半干旱荒漠草原带沙化草地封禁治理效果研究[J]. 中国沙漠, 2007, (2): 206-209. doi:
      CHANG H J, CHEN X.  Effect of enclosing desertified grassland from grazing in Semi-arid desert steppe[J]. Journal of desert research, 2007, (2): 206-209. doi:

    27. [27]

      赵成章, 贾亮红.  退牧还草工程综合效益评价指标体系及实证研究[J]. 中国草地学报, 2008, 30(4): 83-87, 117.
      ZHAO C Z, JIA L H.  The evaluation indexes system of comprehensive effect of the project of returning grazing land to no grazing land and a case study[J]. Chinese Journal of Grassland重庆欢乐生肖, 2008, 30(4): 83-87, 117.

    28. [28]

      ANDRADE B O, KOCH C, BOLDRINI I I, MARTIN E V, HASENACK H, HERMANN J M, KOLLMANN J, PILLAR V D, OVERBECK G E.  Grassland degradation and restoration: A conceptual framework of stages and thresholds illustrated by southern Brazilian grasslands[J]. Natureza & Conservação, 2015, 13(2): 95-104.

    29. [29]

      王娅, 张文波, 窦学诚.  西北高寒牧区村域经济对退牧还草工程的响应机制研究: 基于甘肃省肃南县12个行政村的调查分析[J]. 干旱区资源与环境, 2014, (3): 129-134. doi:
      WANG Y, ZHANG W B, DOU X C.  The response mechanism of village level economy on the policy of grazing grassland fencing in Northwest alpine pastoral: based on the investigation of 12 villages, Sunan county, Gansu province[J]. Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment, 2014, (3): 129-134. doi:

    30. [30]

      赵宇哲, 刘芳.  生态港口评价指标体系的构建: 基于R聚类、变异系数与专家经验的分析[J]. 科研管理, 2015, (2): 124-132.
      ZHAO Y Z, LIU F.  The ecological port evaluation indicator system based on r-cluster, coefficient of variation and expert experience[J]. Science Research Management, 2015, (2): 124-132.

    31. [31]

      赵成章, 王小鹏, 周伟, 高福元, 黄勇, 王兴国.  退牧还草区农牧民家庭收入结构转型效益[J]. 经济地理, 2011, 31(3): 470-475.
      ZHAO C Z, WANG X P, ZHOU W, LIU F Y, HUANG Y, WANG X G.  Income restructuring benefits of fanning and grazing household in the area of returning grazing land to grasslands[J]. Economic Geography重庆欢乐生肖, 2011, 31(3): 470-475.

    1. [1]

      叶晗朱立志 . 内蒙古牧区草地生态补偿实践评析. 草业科学, 2014, 8(8): 1587-1596. doi: 

    2. [2]

      蒋胜竞冯天骄刘国华贺金生 . 草地生态修复技术应用的文献计量分析. 草业科学, 2020, 37(4): 685-702. doi: 

    3. [3]

      重庆欢乐生肖  chuanxibeituimuhaicaogongchengquweilancaodizhibeihuifuxiaoguodeyanjiu. caoyekexue, 2008, 2(10): 15-19.

    4. [4]

      重庆欢乐生肖  tuimuhaicaogongchengshengtaixiaoyipingjia yigansushengmaquxianheanxixianweili. caoyekexue, 2008, 2(12): 35-40.

    5. [5]

      李云龙周宇庭张宪洲沈振西石培礼余成群武建双重庆欢乐生肖 . 羌塘牧民对退牧还草工程的认知与响应. 草业科学, 2013, 7(5): 788-794.

    6. [6]

       gansushengtuimuhaicaogongchengjianceyuguanlixitongsheji. caoyekexue, 2009, 3(7): 19-23.

    7. [7]

      重庆欢乐生肖  jiuquanshituimuhaicaogongchengduizhibeihuifudeyingxiang. caoyekexue, 2009, 3(2): 27-32.

    8. [8]

      白 爽何晨曦赵 霞 . 草原生态补奖政策实施效果基于生产性补贴政策的实证分析. 草业科学, 2015, 9(2): 287-293. doi:  重庆欢乐生肖

    9. [9]

      重庆欢乐生肖  tuimuhaicaogongchengduineimengguewenkeqijingjishehuixiaoyideyingxiang. caoyekexue, 2009, 3(12): 19-23.

    10. [10]

      马松江 . 三江源地区生态保护与建设投资项目实施效果分析以格尔木市唐古拉山镇为例. 草业科学, 2010, 4(9): 161-168.

    11. [11]

       huangyuanshanpodititiantuigenghailinhaicaoxiaoguoyanjiuchubao. caoyekexue, 2008, 2(10): 139-143.

    12. [12]

       ganhanbanganhanqutuigenghailinhaicaogongchengxiaoyizonghepingjiayiyuzhongxianweili. caoyekexue, 2012, 6(9): 1359-1367.

    13. [13]

      杨振坤徐正茹张玉霞王华香重庆欢乐生肖 . 绿化工程施工管理及应用效果评价. 草业科学, 2010, 4(3): 67-71.

    14. [14]

      ??杨??亚许宇慧??磊重庆欢乐生肖 . 植物篱模式下小流域退耕还草生态农业可持续发展模式研究. 草业科学, 2009, 3(4): 59-63.

    15. [15]

      冯云飞李猛李少伟邸迎伟沈振西张宪洲余成群严俊席永士武建双 . 2010 – 2017年藏北高寒退化草地禁牧恢复效果评价. 草业科学, 2019, 36(4): 1148-1162. doi:  重庆欢乐生肖

    16. [16]

       maquzhongyaoshuiyuanbujiqudeshengtaigongnenghuifucelve. caoyekexue, 2012, 6(5): 845-847.

    17. [17]

      李令贺慧丹未亚西杨永胜罗谨李红琴李英年周华坤 . 三江源农牧交错区植被群落及土壤固碳持水能力对退耕还草措施的响应. 草业科学, 2017, 11(10): 1999-2008. doi:  重庆欢乐生肖

    18. [18]

      周广帆杨殿林秦洁李青梅赵建宁 . 丹江口水源涵养区退耕还草对土壤微生物和线虫群落的影响. 草业科学, 2019, 36(11): 2796-2805. doi: 

    19. [19]

       xiangcaoyuyumijieganhunheqingzhuxiaoguodeyanjiu. caoyekexue, 2012, 6(6): 1002-1006.

    20. [20]

      重庆欢乐生肖  weiningqiujingcaolusiweiheishanyangxiaoguoshiyan. caoyekexue, 2012, 6(7): 1158-1162.

  • 重庆欢乐生肖

    表 1  重庆欢乐生肖 盐池县退牧还草工程实施情况

    Table 1.  Implementation situation of the grazing withdrawal project in Yanchi County

    实施年份 Year投入金额 Investment amount完成情况 Completion status
    围栏封育 Enclosure/
    (× 104 CNY)
    补播改良 Resowing improvement/
    (× 104 CNY)
    人工饲草 Artificial forage grassland/
    (× 104 CNY)
    舍饲棚圈 Covered pen/
    (× 104 CNY)
    围栏封育 Enclosure/
    (× 104 hm2)
    补播改良 Resowing improvement/
    (× 104 hm2)
    人工饲草 Artificial forage grassland/
    (× 104 hm2)
    舍饲棚圈/户 Covered pen/
    household
    2003 2 415 8.67
    2004 1 976.8 8
    2005 2 000 400 6.70 2.68
    2006 2 440 500 8.18 3.36
    2007 210 200 1 1.34
    2008 30 0.21
    2009 210 50 1.01 0.34
    2010 60 175 0.41
    2011 920 320 210 3.04 0.24 700
    2012 600 320 439.5 2.04 0.14 600
    2013 500 80 672 1.71 0.03 800
    2014 400 240 150 1.33 0.1 500
    2015 200 240 480 0.67 0.1 1 000
    2016 300 700 0.34 0.23
    合计 Total 9 251.8 4 160 2 075 1 951.5 33.56 17.47 0.84 3 600
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2  退牧还草工程实施效果评价指标体系筛选

    Table 2.  重庆欢乐生肖 Filtering the evaluation index system of the grazing withdrawal project

    目标层
    Objective
    准则层
    Criteria
    指标层
    Indicator
    聚类类别
    Clustering categories
    K-W检验sig
    K-W test sig
    变异系数
    Variable coefficient
    是否保留
    Whether to retain
    退牧还草
    工程实施效果
    Implementation effects of the grazing withdrawal project
    工程的自身特性
    Characteristics of
    the project
    可接受性 Acceptability 1 0.835 0.525 7 保留 Retain
    养殖户实施意愿
    Willingness to implement
    1 0.517 3 删除 Delete
    工程实施难度
    Difficulty in implementation
    2 保留 Retain
    立地适宜性 Site suitability 3 保留 Retain
    目标适宜性 Target suitability 4 保留 Retain
    经济发展适宜性
    Suitability for economic development
    5 保留 Retain
    工程的生态效益
    Ecological benefits of
    the project
    沙尘天气减少程度
    Reduction degree of sand and dustweather
    1 保留 Retain
    降雨增加程度
    Increased degree of rainfall
    2 保留 Retain
    植被覆盖度提高程度
    Increased degree of
    vegetation coverage
    3 保留 Retain
    生活环境改善程度
    Improvement in the degree
    of living environment
    1 保留 Retain
    工程的社会效益
    Social benefits of
    the project
    生活设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of living facilities
    1 保留 Retain
    生产设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of production facilities
    2 保留 Retain
    工程的经济效益
    Economic benefits of
    the project
    养殖户获益情况 Benefit degree 1 0.175 0.583 9 删除 Delete
    工程实施后收入变化
    Changes in income
    1 0.542 2 删除 Delete
    补贴对家庭状况改善的作用
    Effect of subsidies on
    family situation
    1 0.612 1 保留 Retain
    牲畜棚圈面积变化
    Changes in the covered pen area
    2 保留 Retain
    存栏量变化
    Changes in livestock number
    3 0.616 0.968 8 保留 Retain
    出栏量变化
    Changes in slaughter number
    3 0.964 3 删除 Delete
    养殖成本提高程度
    Improving degree of
    breeding cost
    4 保留 Retain
    牲畜损失量变化
    Changes in livestock loss
    5 保留 Retain
    工程的可持续性
    Sustainability of
    the project
    实施的可持续性
    Sustainability of implementation
    1 保留 Retain
    促进增收的可持续性
    Sustainability of
    promoting income increase
    2 0.427 0.631 2 保留 Retain
    促进养殖业发展的可持续性 Sustainability of promoting breedingdevelopment 2 0.594 7 删除Delete
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3  退牧还草工程实施效果评价指标体系及说明

    Table 3.  Evaluation index system and instructions of the grazing withdrawal project

    目标层
    Objective
    准则层
    Criteria
    指标层
    Indicator
    指标说明
    Index instructions
    指标属性
    Attribution
    指标层权重
    Indicator weight
    准则层权重
    Criteria weight
    退牧还草
    工程实施效果
    Implementation effects of the grazing withdrawal project
    工程的自身特性
    Characteristics of the project
    可接受性
    Acceptability
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.003 1 0.050 1
    养殖户实施意愿
    Willingness to implement
    1~5打分(由1到5难度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the willingness + 0.003 1
    工程实施难度
    Difficulty in implementation
    1~5打分(由1到5适宜性依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the greater the difficulty) + 0.003 1
    立地适宜性
    Site suitability
    1~5打分(由1到5适宜性依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the greater the suitability) + 0.026 3
    经济发展适宜性
    Suitability for economic development
    1~5打分(由1到5适宜性依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the greater the suitability + 0.014 5
    工程的生态效益 Ecological benefits of the project 沙尘天气减少程度 Reduction degree of sand and dust weather 1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.145 4 0.418 0
    降雨增加程度
    Increased degree of rainfall
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.042 3
    植被覆盖度
    提高程度
    Increased degree of vegetation coverage
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.081 4
    生活环境改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of living environment
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.148 9
    工程的社会效益
    Social benefits of the project
    生活设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of living facilities
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.068 3 0.127 4
    生产设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of production facilities
    1~5打分(由1到5程度依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the degree) + 0.059 1
    工程的经济效益
    Economic benefits of the project
    牲畜棚圈面积变化 Changes in the covered pen area 1=减少 2=无变化 3=增加
    1 = decrease, 2 = unchanged,
    3 = increase
    + 0.017 6 0.280 1
    存栏量变化
    Changes in the number of livestock
    1 = 减少 2 = 无变化 3 = 增加
    1 = decrease, 2 = unchanged,
    3 = increase
    + 0.031 9
    养殖成本提高程度
    Improvement in the degree of
    breeding cost
    具体数值(倍) Specific value (Times) 0.047 5
    退牧还草
    工程实施效果
    Implementation effects of the grazing withdrawal project
    补贴对家庭状况
    改善的作用
    Effect of
    subsidies on
    family situation
    1~5打分(由1到5作用依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the effect) + 0.067 4
    牲畜损失
    量变化
    Changes in loss of livestock
    1 = 减少 2 = 无变化 3 = 增加
    1 = decrease, 2 = unchanged,
    3 = increase
    0.115 7
    工程的
    可持续性
    Sustainability of the project
    实施的可持续性
    Sustainability of implementation
    1~5打分(由1到5可持续性依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the sustainability) + 0.031 1 0.124 5
    促进增收
    的可持续性
    Sustainability of promoting income increase
    1~5打分(由1到5可持续性依次增强) Scoring in the 1~5 range (the higher the score, the stronger the sustainability) + 0.093 4
     “+”为正向指标,即指标数值越大,效果越好;“–”为负向指标,即指标数值越小,效果越好。
     “+” is the positive index, that is, the greater the index value, the better the effect; “–” is the negative index, that is, the smaller the index value, the better the effect.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4  重庆欢乐生肖 退牧还草工程实施效果的综合评价结果

    Table 4.  重庆欢乐生肖 Comprehensive evaluation of the implementation effect of the grazing withdrawal project

    准则层指标
    Criteria index
    评价结果
    Evaluation result
    工程的自身特性
    Characteristics of the project
    0.026 4
    工程的生态效益
    Ecological benefits of the project
    0.284 5
    工程的社会效益
    Social benefits of the project
    0.081 7
    工程的经济效益
    Economic benefits of the project
    0.173 9
    工程的可持续性
    Sustainability of the project
    0.060 8
    综合评价结果
    Comprehensive evaluation result
    0.627 3
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5  重庆欢乐生肖 退牧还草工程实施效果的评价结果

    Table 5.  重庆欢乐生肖 Specific evaluation of the implementation effect of the grazing withdrawal project

    序号
    Serial number
    指标
    Index
    评价结果
    Evaluation result
    序号
    Serial number
    指标
    Index
    评价结果
    Evaluation result
    1 沙尘天气减少程度
    Reduction degree of sand and dustWeather
    0.121 7 10 实施的可持续性
    Sustainability of implementation
    0.020 4
    2 生活环境改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of the living environment
    0.105 8 11 目标适宜性
    Target suitability
    0.016 9
    3 牲畜损失量变化
    Changes in loss of livestock
    0.071 2 12 存栏量变化
    Changes in the livestock number
    0.015 2
    4 植被覆盖度提高程度
    Increased degree of vegetation coverage
    0.052 1 13 牲畜棚圈面积变化
    Changes in the covered pen area
    0.013 7
    5 生产设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of production facilities
    0.043 9 14 降雨增加程度
    Increased degree of rainfall
    0.004 9
    6 养殖成本提高程度
    Improvement in the degree of breeding cost
    0.043 0 15 经济发展适宜性
    Suitability for economic development
    0.004 3
    7 促进增收的可持续性
    Sustainability of promoting income increase
    0.040 5 16 立地适宜性
    Site suitability
    0.002 2
    8 生活设施改善程度
    Improvement in the degree of living facilities
    0.037 8 17 可接受性
    Acceptability
    0.001 8
    9 补贴对家庭状况改善的作用
    Effect of subsidies on
    family situation
    0.030 9 18 实施难度
    Difficulty in implementation
    0.001 2
    下载: 导出CSV
    重庆欢乐生肖 Yabo下载_Yabo官网下载 加拿大pc_加拿大pc官网 重庆欢乐生肖 重庆欢乐生肖 重庆欢乐生肖

                      <dfn id='tj4m3'><optgroup id='tj4m3'></optgroup></dfn><tfoot id='tj4m3'><bdo id='tj4m3'><div id='tj4m3'></div><i id='tj4m3'><dt id='tj4m3'></dt></i></bdo></tfoot>

                      <ul id='tj4m3'></ul>

                      • 加载中
                      • 计量
                        • PDF下载量:  39
                        • 文章访问数:  20199
                        • HTML全文浏览量:  18132
                        文章相关
                        • 通讯作者:  赵凯, .cn
                        • 收稿日期:  2018-05-08
                        • 刊出日期:  2019-01-01
                        通讯作者: 陈斌,
                        • 1. 

                          shenyanghuagongdaxuecailiaokexueyugongchengxueyuan shenyang 110142

                        1. 本站搜索
                        2. 百度学术搜索
                        3. 万方数据库搜索
                        4. CNKI搜索

                        /

                        返回文章
                        重庆欢乐生肖 Yabo下载_Yabo官网下载 加拿大pc_加拿大pc官网 重庆欢乐生肖 重庆欢乐生肖 重庆欢乐生肖